Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean Sea. It is approximately 145 kilometres south of the island of Cuba. Jamaica has several rugged mountain ranges, with the highest point, the Blue Mountain Peak, soaring over 2,256 metres (7,402 feet). The coastline is approximately 1,022 kilometres. The climate of Jamaica is mainly tropical with the most important climatic influences being the Northeast Trade Winds and the island’s orographic features (mainly the central ridge of mountains and hills).
Jamaica is a Small Island Developing State (SIDS) that is vulnerable to climate change impacts especially along the coastal areas and affecting livelihood activities. This is because of its geographical location, biophysical landscape, and its high dependence on natural resources. Jamaica has experienced several storms and hurricanes in the past decade with severe flooding damage, loss of lives, and destruction of goods and services to the amount of $ 129 billion USD. The impacts of increasing climatic events such as tropical hurricanes and associated peaks of strong winds have profound consequences on agricultural production, food security, and local livelihoods.
Jamaica became a Party to the UNFCCC on the 6th April, 1995, to the Kyoto Protocol on the 16th February 1999 and ratified the Paris Agreement on the 11th April, 2017. The Climate Change Division (CCD) in the Ministry of Economic Growth and Job Creation is the national focal point to the Convention and Protocol. Jamaica has implemented several projects relating to mitigation and adapting to climate change since becoming a Party to the Convention. Having ratified the Paris Agreement in 2017, Jamaica is seeking to align current and planned initiatives with its second (2nd) Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC), which seeks to “mitigate the equivalent of 1.8 million to 2.0 metric tons of carbon dioxide by 2030 versus the business-as-usual scenario”.
Jamaica remains committed to making its contribution as the world moves to address the challenge of climate change. It has broadened its sectoral scope and taken steps to move towards an economy-wide target and will bring emissions from the land use change and forestry sector within its NDC for the first time.
This reflects the importance of the forestry sector to Jamaica, which accounts for more than half of the island’s total land use, and the important commitments that the country has made to preserve and enhance these stocks. The country has identified opportunities to deepen the emission reductions it delivers in the energy sector. These opportunities are part of an increasingly comprehensive approach to decarbonising this sector that covers both the electricity generation, as well as energy use sub-sectors. The result of these positive changes is that Jamaica’s latest NDC will be significantly more ambitious. By 2030, it foresees emission reductions covering these two sectors of between 25.4 per cent (unconditional) and 28.5 per cent (conditional) relative to a business-as-usual scenario (which considers policies in place as of 2005). This implies that emissions in these sectors would be 1.8 to 2.0 MtCO2e lower than they otherwise be, compared with a range of 1.1 to 1.5 MtCO2e in its previous NDC.
Adaptation represents an important cross-cutting element for all sectors. Within the energy and land-use sectors, the policies in place to reduce emissions will also provide adaptation co-benefits to Jamaica and therefore enhance the country’s resilience.
- Waste and sanitation management: Incineration of municipal solid waste technologies, capture of landfill gas, production of biodiesel from cooking oil and plant-based sources, co‐generation using bagasse, production of biogas using animal wastes and use of wastewater sludge.
- Renewable energy and energy efficiency infrastructure projects.
- Increasing technical capacity and funding to sustain and expand ecosystem and wildlife habitat restoration programmes.
- Conducting vulnerability assessments and modelling projected loss and damage, to inter alia, evaluate feasibility of restoration and conservation interventions in various coastal areas.
- Technical and financial support to build capacity and ongoing education of fisherfolk and coastal community members to increase their involvement in mangrove and coral reef protection.
- Funding for the implementation phase of the REDD+ initiative. Technical assistance, financing, and technological development to support the inclusion of underrepresented groups (youth, women etc.) associated with gathering climate data for citizen science.
- Support in capacity development towards involvement in carbon markets.
- Financing and technical support to expand the role of technology in monitoring post disaster response, environmental management, and enforcement.
- Public private partnerships
- Identification, design and development of impact and bankable infrastructure projects
- The Integrated Management of the Yallahs and Hope River Watershed Management Areas (Yallahs-Hope) Project.
- The Essex Valley Agriculture Development Project
- Plastic Waste Minimisation project
- Country-wide integrated Waste Management (IWM) Project
- Range of pilot projects exploring biodiesel from cooking oil and plants (for example jatropha), the production of biogas using animal waste and increasing the use of biodigesters
- Energy management and Efficiency Programme – Urban Traffic Management: It aims to reduce the energy consumption of road transport in the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA) by 40% between 2017 and 2023.
- Energy Management and Efficiency Programme: aims to reduce electricity consumption by 30% within public sector health and education facilities between 2017 and 2023.
- Energy Efficiency and Conservation Project
- National Appropriate Mitigation Action in the water sector: aims to reduce final electricity intensity in the water services sector by 10% by 2030 due to the deployment of solar PV plants for captive-use generation.
- “No net loss of forest cover.” It aims to achieve no net loss of forest cover leads to increased afforestation and a slight reduction in gross deforestation each year to 2030.
- Planting 3 million trees by end of 2022
- The introduction of 136 LNG-fuelled public transport buses by 2025.
- Improved combined heat and power (CHP) in alumina refining, which speaks to the introduction of improve energy efficiency in the alumina-refining from 80% to 90% between 2020 and 2030.
- The implementation of the Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) which lays out planned deployment of electricity capacity between 2020 and 2038, including 412 MW of solar and wind capacity between 2020 and 2030.
- The Energy Management and Efficiency Programme, which focuses on both urban traffic management and energy efficiency. It has a commitment to reduces the energy consumption of road transport in the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA) by 40% between 2017 and 2023.
- The development of climate change resilient crop varieties and systems that are tolerant of flooding, drought, and salinity, and based on indigenous and other varieties suited to the needs of resource poor farmers, fisheries and livestock systems to ensure local and national food security.
- Facilitate the use of water efficient agricultural methods including using permaculture technologies, intercropping, and terracing, and improving irrigation technology and water harvesting techniques.
- Facilitating the improvement of flood and heat management techniques to protect poultry and cattle from changes in climate (e.g., improve animal housing).
- Improving ecosystem resilience by implementing measures related to soil conservation, fire management, flood and erosion control, mangrove restoration and rehabilitation, and reforestation and forest conservation.
- Improve food storage systems, establish an agriculture insurance system and diversifying food production techniques.
- Energy efficiency in hospitals and smart hospital.
- Building climate resilience of Jamaica’s water infrastructure (Water Supply Improvement Programme).
- Addressing Critically Eroded Coastal Areas.
- Mainstreaming Coral Reef Resilience and Restoration as an Ecosystem-based Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change in the Caribbean Region (MaCREAS).
- Enhancing Coastal Resilience Against Climate Change.
- Provision of database and information for the country’s SCF profile (08 March 2022).
- Participation in regional SCF webinars