Mali faces significant challenges related to climate change. The major climatic risks identified in Mali are floods, drought, low spatio-temporal distribution of rains, winds and heat waves. The sectors most affected by these phenomena are agriculture, water resources, forestry and land use, energy, human settlements and health.
Mali’s economy is based primary sectors such as agriculture that employs more than 70% of the population and contributes about 45% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It mainly depends on the rainy season. This dependence, combined with the limited technological and equipment means of producers, makes Malian agriculture extremely vulnerable and directly affected by climate change, putting the economy at risk.
In addition to agriculture, climate change affects health, transport infrastructures, habitats and forest resources (fauna and flora).
The Government of the Republic of Mali, like several other vulnerable countries and in accordance with the ratification of the Paris Agreement, has undertaken to revise its NDC with more ambition. The raising of Mali’s ambitions are reflected in the increase in the level of emission reduction, which goes from 74,623 KTeq CO2 for the 2015 NDC to 91,846 KTeq CO2 for the revised NDC. It should also be noted, the inclusion of waste as the fourth sector in the updated NDC. In addition, it takes into account the mobilization of local authorities and the private sector and civil society in the overall effort of the country combatting climate change. It has also resulted in the consideration of air pollutants in emissions reduction efforts, which will reduce black carbon emissions by 42% compared to a reference scenario, fine particulate emissions (PM2.5) by 45% and nitrogen oxide emissions by 21%, by 2030.
The level of GHG reduction ambitions of the mitigation scenario compared to the baseline scenario in 2030 is 31% for the energy sector, 25% for the agriculture sector, 39% for the forestry and land use and 31% for the waste sector. The synthesis of emissions and sequestrations by 2030 gives a reduction of 40% of its total GHG emissions.
The technical assistance activities of the SCF would mainly be training and capacity building in all SCF eligible areas.
More specifically, the technical assistance required would concern:
- Strengthening the technical capacities of the National Designated Authority (NDA) staff and members and other national actors in the field of renewable energy technologies;
- Strengthening the technical capacities of state agents and private sector actors on climate finance;
- Strengthening the NDA and other national actors in climate negotiations (various COPs).
The expected areas for investments are:
- Solar energy infrastructure;
- The biodigester infrastructure;
- Collection, management and recycling of waste;
- Development of climate-smart irrigation infrastructure;
- Development of green spaces and parks for commercial use;
- Construction of solid and liquid waste management infrastructure.
- Fight against desertification and silting;
- Development of research on adaptation to climate change;
- Mobilization of local communities, vulnerable communities and women’s groups to improve their resilience to climate change;
- Implementation of a technological action plan for adaptation and mitigation;
- Forest management, ecosystem restoration and assisted natural regeneration;
- Development of smart agriculture that is resilient to climate change;
- Pastoral development resilient to climate change aimed at materializing transhumance axes;
- Creation of pastoral areas;
- Collection and storage of rainwater;
- Development of renewable energies and energy efficiency.
Adding to this, Mali seeks support for the implementation of projects under its National Action Program for Adaptation to Climate Change (NAPA), including on:
- The development and popularization of crop varieties, types of animals and improved and adapted fodder crops;
- The promotion of cereal banks;
- Income Generating Activities (IGA);
- Small-scale agricultural development and land conservation;
- Use of meteorological information and products;
- Capacity building
- Provision of data and information for the country’s SCF profile (July 28, 2021).